In part one of Singers and their Songs we looked at how songs come together- from a songs origin in a scale and then to the arrangement as a means to complete the song.
As singers assemble their songs (known as their “repertoire” of songs), whether it may be a writer creating the full arrangement of their song, or a vocalist doing a cover version, the first step for the singer is to choose “the Key” of the song.
We said earlier that a scale is chosen by the songwriter based in part, on the type of mood, or effect they want to achieve with the melody and accompaniment. The “key” of a song is known to be the first note through to the last note of the scale. If the song will have a singer singing a melody, then the key will be chosen with the singer’s vocal range in mind.
The notes of scale can be structured within 26 keys, 12 are major scales, and 12 are minor scales and each has a letter designation that indicates the first and last note of the Key, such as C or E, or A Flat, or C Sharp.
Major and minor scales each create a different sound or mood; the singer then chooses a key, in part, so that the song melody can be sung unique to the singers vocal range (of low and high notes) and the key, sometimes on its own, then has a unique “feel” or sound; thus there are no “good or bad” keys (except if you are the musicians playing the song- so they say…).
In time, singers get used to singing songs in a variety of keys, and this is so because songs will vary greatly, especially in complexity, depending on the genre of music, eg., pop, Jazz, country, and then by tempo or speed, such as a ballad (slow song), mid tempo or up tempo (such as a dance song). So these variables change the song dynamics, and if the writer has chosen a simple melody, or a complex melody, then these variables will impact the key that a given singer chooses.
If a song becomes a challenge due to melody leaps, high or low, the singer may first consider alterations to the melody to deal with those changes, rather than shift the key. When the melody has a lot of leaps high and low, it may make key choice a challenge at times, but a key choice must eventually be decided upon by the singer. Then the arrangement process continues and the unique overall version of the song is thus created.
It’s important for all singers to be open to change the key of a song away from the original artist. This is done as a step toward creating the most “original” sound for the song; and the song can still greatly resemble the original; this is where a skilled arranger can come in with expertise to help. Beyond originality, this is also a step towards brand development and image for the singer as well.
If the singer works with a band, then the band must adapt the songs to the key dictated by the singer. Yes, the band should adapt to the singer (not the other way around- as some think).
In some isolated situations a bandleader may demand that a classic song stay in the original key, and then the singer needs to adapt to that key. Of course, this is often worked out ahead of time, and hopefully the musicians and singers rehearse so that there are no surprises.
But wherever possible, the singer should dictate the key of the song, and if the band cannot adapt to that key demand by the singer, then the singer needs to find a band with a level of musicianship and proper attitude- that can accommodate the singer.
As the scale and key are established for the singer, arrangement touches are added and may include any special effects of the voice (which we will look at in depth in a future topic), as well as any other arrangement choices that are made in terms of instrumentation, intro’s and endings and other considerations.
Would love to hear your comments and questions.
In an earlier post we briefly examined some of the challenges singers face building a song catalogue for performance, or album or demo recording.
Here we’ll take a more in depth look at how singers might approach the structure of their songs from the outset. In examining this structure, it’s best to start with some basics.
Whether you’re a singer, musician, music aficionado or all the above, you may have wondered as you listened to a song, what was the process whereby a song came together with its finished sound in a specific way?
A singer sings a melody and lyrics- and then that melody and lyrics are supported by the accompaniment music around it. If you have ever heard a demo version of song, it is typically played on guitar or keyboard while the writer or singer sings the melody.
Demos always sound basic and thin, because they are typically one voice and one instrument. But then the completed song seems to take on a life of its own. All of the individual and collective song elements are created by an arranger.
The arranger could be the composer of the song, or someone else (it’s usually a music producer or a musician with some, or a lot, of music theory background.) Looking back in music history, two famed arrangers are George Martin (for The Beatles) and Quincy Jones (for Michael Jackson). The Beatles, for example, brought their demo versions of songs to George and then he would finish them, along with input from the Beatles.
A song’s arrangement is everything that goes into the final sound that you hear in the recording or performance; the elements include the instrumentation, to the speed or tempo of the music, to the way in which the singer(s) sings, to the intro and ending of the song.
At the most basic level- the melodies of songs, as well as their accompaniment, or background music, are derived from a scale. A scale is a series of notes with a resulting sound or effect and writers choose these scales based on the mood that they want for their song.
The scale is to a songwriter what brushes and oils are to a painter. Many contemporary songs across a multitude of genres will stay in one scale, but it is possible to have multiple scales in one song.
Major scale is the most widely used scale – dating back to greek times with classical music- and is still the predominant scale used today in contemporary music- though its certainly not the only one.
So a crucial element in beginning a song arrangement is to look at matching the songs melody with the singer and their vocal range.
In part two, we’ll look at how songs come together with vocal and the rest of the arrangement.
A while back here at the blog, I wrote a 6-part expose on singers and marketing. One phase of building the brand as a singer is to have a quality demo of your work to show your vocal prowess. The linked article here is from The Recording Connection, a national audio school and recording studio, with some concise tips on how to approach your vocal demo. They take great care here to break down the options by purpose, whether you goal is to try and publish songs, or to promote you the artist, or your band.
Thought I would share this great overview from the Music Clout on the music royalty system for songwriters. Though its written as a treatise or white paper it’s a great resource and reference source for you on on how song royalties are calculated and distributed.
There have been a number of articles and papers written over the years on the topic of how music involvement, and more so, music study, has positively affected humans; some of these I have posted here at the blog. This piece takes a more scientific view, which in and of itself is even more assuring to me.
Though this compelling piece puts the primary focus on children and youth, it makes the case later in the article that an active involvement with music benefits a person throughout life.
The title is: The power of music: its impact on the intellectual, social and personal development of children and young people.
The white paper was written by Susan Hallam from the Institute of Education, University of London. Enjoy!
Ok so this post speaks to anyone who has thought about their age with respect to their involvement in music and singing. Should you have concerns if over a certain age, say 50 or so?
I must share that my vocal students at times express concerns about age as it relates to their singing, some as young as 30 or so. The fact is that we can sing and reap great benefits from singing at any age.
Here in 2016, Jazz/pop singer Tony Bennett is nearing 90 years of age- and he is still touring and drawing big crowds! Now he has been in the music business consistently since a young age, but what if he changed his mind set at any point along the way- that he was “too old” to sing? Though he has altered his approach with age, Tony still goes on- entertaining crowds.
Over time our bodies do change with the aging process. As we age our Vocal chords have less pliability, and so one of the more distinctive changes that happens to our voice, as a result, is that we may not reach the highest notes that we did when we were younger. But this process varies from person to person, and is dependent somewhat on the lifestyle and health habits from one person to the next.
As Tony Bennett and many others singers prove, you can make alterations, such as the keys of songs and vocal arrangements that will still result in wonderful music- that you will still love performing. Of course maintaining overall good spiritual and physical health is essential as well.
So the focus must be on your music- regardless of age. What drives you musically and vocally? With this more proactive approach, you are much less likely to focus on age so that your real strengths come through. And as with any endeavor, musically or otherwise, continue with training to develop your skills.
So set goals and go after them. Wherever there may be the perception of an age-related issue such as who will accept your music, bring the focus back to your music. It can also be enormously helpful to talk with your peers and loved ones to gain their perspective as well.
I love the linked article below, “Are we too old to make it.” It is right on the money with the focus on how we think- about ourselves and our craft; this piece goes back a few years- but the message is still timeless.
Feel free to leave comments.